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CNC machine tools are generally composed of CNC system, servo system, main drive system, strong electric control cabinet, machine tool body and various auxiliary devices.
(1) Numerical control system: It is the core of machine tool to realize automatic processing. It is mainly composed of operating system, main control system, programmable controller and various input and output interfaces.
(2) Servo system: It is the electric transmission link between the CNC system and the machine tool body. It is mainly composed of servo motor, drive control system and position detection feedback device.
(3) Main drive system: It is one of the main components that transmit torque during machine tool cutting. Generally divided into two types: gear stepless speed regulation and electric stepless speed regulation. It is mainly composed of a spindle drive control system, a spindle motor and a spindle mechanical transmission mechanism.
(4) Power control cabinet: Mainly used to install various electrical components for power control of machine tools. In addition to providing input power for weak current control systems such as numerical control, servo, etc., as well as various electrical protections such as short-circuit, overload, and undervoltage, its function is mainly in the output interface of the programmable controller PLC and the electrical execution of various auxiliary devices of the machine tool. The components play the role of bridge connection, that is, control various AC motors, hydraulic system solenoid valves or electromagnetic clutches of machine tool auxiliary devices.
(5) Auxiliary devices: mainly include ATC tool automatic exchange mechanism, APC workpiece automatic exchange mechanism, workpiece clamping and relaxation mechanism, rotary table, hydraulic control system, lubrication device, cutting fluid device, chip removal device, overload and limit protection Functions and other parts. The machining functions and types of machine tools are different, and the parts included are also different.
(6) Machine tool body: It is the mechanical structure entity of index-controlled machine tool. Compared with traditional ordinary machine tools, there are the following changes.
A. Adopt high-performance main drive and main shaft components
B. The feed transmission adopts high-efficiency transmission parts
C. There is a relatively complete automatic tool exchange and management system
D. There are automatic workpiece exchange, workpiece clamping and loosening mechanism.
E. The bed frame has high dynamic rigidity and static rigidity
F. Adopt a fully enclosed enclosure